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If you do not see a particular word or phrase that you would like to know the definition of, please let us know by writing to MaryJo.Nott@sourcemedia.com and indicate the term you would like us to add to the Glossary.

Acronym for abnormal end of task. It refers to software crashes or lossage. Derives from an error message on the IBM 360.

Access Path
The path chosen by a database management system to retrieve the requested data.

Access Provider
A company which provides its customers a service whereby they can access the Internet. The user normally connects to the access provider's computer via a modem using a dial-up connection.

Active Attack
A persistent security assault by someone trying to gain restricted access by altering data. There are multiple techniques, decryption for example, which can be used to lead the attack.

Active Server Pages (ASP)
Active server pages are a set of software components that run on a Web server and allow Web developers to build dynamic Web pages.

Activity-Based Costing (ABC)
Activity-based costing (ABC) is an information system that maintains and processes data on a firm's activites and products. It identifies the activites performed, traces cost to these activites, and then uses various cost drivers to trace the cost of activities to products.*

Activity-Based Management (ABM)
Activity-based management (ABM) is the use of the activity-based costing tool by process owners to control and improve their operations. Because process analysis is conducted in the building of an activity-based cost model, management knows its business much better and can consequently evaluate value-added and non-value-added activities. Because a certain volume of work produces a certain outcome, What if analysis can be conducted to determine what resources are required of operations are scaled back or expanded.*

Ad Clicks
Also called clickthroughs. The number of times a user "clicks" on an online ad, often measured as a function of time("ad clicks per day")

Ad Hoc Query
Any query that cannot be determined prior to the moment the query is issued. A query that consists of dynamically constructed SQL, which is usually constructed by desktop- resident query tools.

Ad Hoc Query Tool
An end-user tool that accepts an English-like or point-and- click request for data and constructs an ad-hoc query to retrieve the desired result.

Administrative Data
In a data warehouse, the data that helps a warehouse administrator manage the warehouse. Examples of administrative data are user profiles and order history data.

Aggregate Data
Data that is the result of applying a process to combine data elements. Data that is taken collectively or in summary form.

This is an e-commerce business model in which the Web site sells products or services which it does not produce or warehouse. An aggregator creates an environment where multiple providers (sellers) must compete on terms determined by the use.

Ajax (Asynchronous Java Script and XML) offers Web developers a means to create rich client-like applications on Web pages without resorting to huge amounts of code or forcing users to download plug-ins.

A notification from an event that has exceeded a pre-defined threshold.

Someone who creates views for analytic interpretation of data, performs calculations and distributes the resulting information in the form of reports.*

Analytic Applications
Packaged software that meets three distinct conditions: process support, separation of function and time-oriented, integrated data Analytic applications expand the reach of business intelligence to an extended user base, packaging these technologies in a business context.

Analytical Profiling
Analytical profiling is the methodology used to examine the business users' process in reporting and analyzing data.

The process and techniques for the exploration and analysis of business data to discover and identify new and meaningful information and trends that allow for analysis to take place.*

A small Java program that can be embedded in an HTML page. They cannot access certain resources on local computers such as files and serial devices and are prohibited from communication with most other computers across a network.

Application Service Provider (ASP)
ASPs provide the infrastructure needed to deliver reliable application access, including enterprise applications, hardware platforms, operating systems, database systems, network hardware as well as the technical expertise to make it all work for a monthly service charge.

American Standard Code for Information Interchange. An eight-bit code for character representation; includes seven bits plus parity.

Application Service Provider. A company that offers access over the Internet to application programs and related services that would otherwise have to be located in other own personal or enterprise computers.

Association Rules
Association rules are information sets discovered through algorithms in data mining or text mining processes that display relationships or associations between specific values of categorical variables in large data sets.

Atomic Data
Data elements that represent the lowest level of detail. For example, in a daily sales report, the individual items sold would be atomic data, while rollups such as invoice and summary totals from invoices are aggregate data.

A field represented by a column within an object (entity). An object may be a table, view or report. An attribute is also associated with an SGML(HTML) tag used to further define the usage.

Authorization Request
A request initiated by a consumer to access data for which the consumer does not presently have access privileges.

Authorization Rules
Criteria used to determine whether or not an individual, group, or application may access reference data or a process.

User access to applications and/or data stores that reside and execute on computing systems accessing information that resides in files and databases supported by an organizations various operating environments.

Business-to-business commerce conducted over the Web.

Business-to-consumer commerce conducted over the Internet. It links consumers to commercial entities in one-way networks.

Balanced Scorecard
A comprehensive, top-down view of organizational performance with a strong focus on vision and strategy. In 1992 the founding fathers of the Balanced Scorecard, Drs. Robert Kaplan and David Norton, debuted their methodology in the Harvard Business Review. Then, in 1996, they released The Balanced Scorecard  Translating Strategy into Action, the so-called bible of the Balanced Scorecard.

Balanced Scorecard Collaborative
A professional services firm dedicated to the worldwide awareness, use, enhancement and integrity of the balanced scorecard as a value-added management process.*

Balanced Scorecard Collaborative Certification
An industry-standard certification offered to software providers whose balanced scorecard applications meet the functional standards of Kaplan and Norton. These are applications that will enable end users to achieve the benefits of the balanced scorecard management process.*

Baldrige Criteria for Performance Excellence
Criteria providing a systems perspective for understanding performance management. They reflect validated, leading management practices against which an organization can measure itself. With their acceptance nationally and internationally as the model for performance excellence, the criteria represent a common language for communication among organizations for sharing best practices.*

A picture or graphic that stretches horizontally across a Web page. These can be used to title the Web page, start or separate different sections, create links to other Web pages, or provide a place for advertisements.

Banner Advertising
A marketing mechanism that contains strips of advertisements that are sporadically positioned on a web page and are extremely popular on the World Wide Web. These types of ads generally take up a considerable amount of bandwidth and are sometimes disturbing to the Web user.

Base Tables
The normalized data structures maintained in the target warehousing database. Also known as the detail data.

Basel II New Accord
This is a set of banking standards, which will regulate finance and banking for countries in the European Union. The Basel Committee on Banking Supervision is tasked with the goal to complete the New Accord by mid-year 2004, with implementation to take effect in member countries by year-end 2006. To that end, work already has begun in a number of countries on draft rules that would integrate Basel capital standards with national capital regimes. Basel II is focused specifically on global banks and financial institutions and ensures liquidity of those institutions for the protection of public trust.*

A point of reference for measurement.

Benefit Segmentation
The process of grouping customers into market segments according to the benefits they seek from the product. Refers to their needs and wants only.

Best Practices
A case study considered to be a good example of a business discipline.

Bidirectional Extracts
The ability to extract, cleanse and transfer data in two directions among different types of databases, including hierarchical, networked and relational databases.

Braking Mechanism
A software mechanism that prevents users from querying the operational database once transaction loads reach a certain level.

Bricks and Mortar
Refers to businesses that exist in the real world as opposed to just the cyber world such as bricks-and-mortar retail outlets, bricks-and-mortar warehouses, etc.

Bridge Table
A table with a multipart key whose purpose is to capture a many-to-many relationship that can't be accompanied by the natural grain of a single fact table or a single dimension table. (Data Warehouse term - Ralph Kimball)

The generic term for software programs that retrieve, display and print information World Wide Web. The most popular browsers are Microsoft Internet Explorer, Netscape Navigator and Mosaic. Mosaic was the first browser to introduce graphics. Previously, users were only allowed to view the text of Web pages. Currently, Microsoft Outlook is the most popular browser in the world.

Bulk Data Transfer
A software-based mechanism designed to move large data files. It supports compression, blocking and buffering to optimize transfer times.

Business Activity Monitoring (BAM)
BAM is the ability to automatically monitor events associated with specific activities in an executing business process. BAM is a business solution supported by an advanced technical infrastructure that enables rapid insight into new business strategies, the reduction of operating cost by real-time identification of issues and improved process performance.

Business Architecture
One of the four layers of an information systems architecture. A business architecture describes the functions a business performs and the information it uses.

Business Continuity
The degree to which an organization may achieve uninterrupted stability of systems and operational procedures.

Business Data
Information about people, places, things, business rules, and events, which is used to operate the business. It is not metadata. (Metadata defines and describes business data.)

Business Drivers
The people, information, and tasks that support the fulfillment of a business objective.

Business Intelligence (BI)
Business intelligence is actually an environment in which business users receive data that is reliable, consistent, understandable, easily manipulated and timely. With this data, business users are able to conduct analyses that yield overall understanding of where the business has been, where it is now and where it will be in the near future. Business intelligence serves two main purposes. It monitors the financial and operational health of the organization (reports, alerts, alarms, analysis tools, key performance indicators and dashboards). It also regulates the operation of the organization providing two- way integration with operational systems and information feedback analysis.

Business Intelligence Platform
A foundation of enabling tools and technologies necessary for the development and deployment of business intelligence and business performance management applications.*

Business Intelligence Service Provider (BISP)
A natural extension of the ASP, application of data warehousing and business intelligence (BI) methodologies and technologies to the ASP model. BISPs tie into information systems behind a corporation's firewall, providing traditional data warehouse and analytic application capabilities for Internet-based e-businesses, especially e-commerce Web sites and are hosted off site.

Business Intelligence Software
A category of software that enables companies to access, analyze and share information to understand how the business is performing and to improve decision making.*

Business Intelligence Tools
The tools and technologies used to access and analyze business information. They include online analytical processing (OLAP) technologies, data mining and advanced analytics; end-user tools for ad hoc query and analysis, enterprise class query, analysis and reporting including dashboards for performance monitoring; and production reporting against all enterprise data sources.*

Business Model
A view of the business at any given point in time. The view can be from a process, data, event or resource perspective, and can be the past, present or future state of the business.

Business Performance Calibration (BPC)
The continuous, near real-time forecasting and analysis of related performance metrics to achieve balanced performance  i.e., efficient growth and the optimal management of resources.

Business Performance Intelligence (BPI)
A subset of the BI market and involves planning and budgeting, Balanced Scorecard performance management and activity-based costing.

Business Performance Management (BPM)
Applications that help direct modeling or scenario exploration activities. Rather than simply exploring what happened and why, the application can help the user consider the implications of alternative courses of action before they become operational. Performance management suggests an explicit relationship to action, and modeling is the key link to do this.

Business Performance Measurement
Applications that provide support for specific KPIs (key performance indicators) enable a business to measure their performance. This is often coupled with comparative information from industry sources, so a company can compare their performance against that of others in their industry. Business performance measurement applications support the analysis phase of the business improvement cycle.

Business Process Management
Business process management is the management of complex interactions between people, applications and technologies in a business designed to create customer value.

Business Transaction
A unit of work acted upon by a data capture system to create, modify, or delete business data. Each transaction represents a single valued fact describing a single business event.

C-Commerce (Collaborative-Commerce)
A business strategy that motivates value-chain partners with a common business interest to generate value through sharing information at all phases of the business cycle (from product development to distribution).

The financial interaction, initiated by a consumer, between a consumer and business.

Pronounced "cash." The storage of recently visited sites and data which can be accessed from computer memory instead of linking the server each time you return to the site. This speeds the access time, but does not reflect any changes to the site while in the cache. On rapidly changing sites you may need to click the reload button in order to read the most recent changes.

Call Center
The part of an organization that handles inbound/outbound communications with customers.

Campaign Management
Detailed tracking, reporting and analysis that provides precise measurements regarding current marketing campaigns, how they are performing and the types of leads they attract.

Cartesian Product
A Cartesian join will get you a Cartesian product. A Cartesian join is when you join every row of one table to every row of another table. You can also get one by joining every row of a table to every row of itself.

Cascading Style Sheet (CSS)
Cascading style sheets is a style sheet language that enables authors and users to attach style (fonts, spacing and aural cues) to structure that include HTML and XML applications.

Computer Aided Software Engineering.

CASE Management
The management of information between multiple CASE encyclopedias," whether the same or different CASE tools.

A component of a data dictionary that contains a directory of its DBMS objects as well as attributes of each object.

Data point defined by one member of each dimension of a multidimensional structure. Often, potential cells in multidimensional structures are empty, leading to 'sparse' storage.

Central Warehouse
A database created from operational extracts that adheres to a single, consistent, enterprise data model to ensure consistency of decision-support data across the corporation. A style of computing where all the information systems are located and managed from a single physical location.

Change Data Capture
The process of capturing changes made to a production data source. Change data capture is typically performed by reading the source DBMS log. It consolidates units of work, ensures data is synchronized with the original source, and reduces data volume in a data warehousing environment.

Describes customer attrition. A high churn rate implies high customer disloyalty.

Classic Data Warehouse Development
The process of building an enterprise business model, creating a system data model, defining and designing a data warehouse architecture, constructing the physical database, and lastly populating the warehouses database.

Clicks and Mortar
A business that has successfully integrated its online existence with its offline, real-world existence. For example, a retail store that allows customers to order products online or purchase products at its store location.

The percentage of advertisements or other content a user clicks on or chooses to view.

A software program used to contact and obtain data from a server software program on another computer. Each client program is designed to work with one or more specific kinds of server programs, and each server requires a specific kid of client.

A distributed technology approach where the processing is divided by function. The server performs shared functions -- managing communications, providing database services, etc. The client performs individual user functions -- providing customized interfaces, performing screen to screen navigation, offering help functions, etc.

Client/Server Architecture
A networked environment where a smaller system such as a PC interacts with a larger, faster system. This allows the processing to be performed on the larger system which frees the user's PC. The larger system is able to connect and disconnect from the clients in order to more efficiently process the data.

Client/Server Processing
A form of cooperative processing in which the end-user interaction is through a programmable workstation (desktop) that must execute some part of the application logic over and above display formatting and terminal emulation.

Clustering is a process of partitioning a set of data into subsets or clusters such that a data element belonging to a cluster is more similar to data elements belonging to the same cluster than the data elements belonging to other clusters.

A set of data that resulted from a DBMS query

Collective Intelligence
Collective intelligence is an approach to producing intellectual content such as code, documents, indexing and decisions that results from individuals working together with no centralized authority. It enables new ways of doing business across industries

Provides an enterprise development environment, based on the Microsoft component object model (COM), for creating component-based, distributed applications.

Common Object Model (COM)
Common object model is an object-based programming specification, designed to provide object interoperability through sets of predefined routines called interfaces.

Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA)
Common object request broker architecture is the Object Management Group (OMG) vendor-independent architecture and infrastructure, which computer applications use to work together over networks.

Communications Integrity
An operational quality that ensures transmitted data has been accurately received at its destination.

Complex Event Processing
Complex event processing (CEP) is an emerging technology for building and managing information systems. The goal of CEP is to enable the information contained in the events flowing through all of the layers of the enterprise IT infrastructure to be discovered, understood in terms of its impact on high level management goals and business processes and acted upon in real time. This includes events created by new technologies such as RFID. CEP is a technology for detecting patterns in underlying events in real time in order to identify or infer higher-level events.

The process that takes data from different systems and entities, and possibly desparate formats, and combines and aggregates that information to create a unified view.*

An individual, group or application that accesses data/information in a data warehouse.

Consumer Profile
Identification of an individual, group or application and a profile of the data they request and use: the kinds of warehouse data, physical relational tables needed, and the required location and frequency of the data (when, where, and in what form it is to be delivered).

Content Management
The processes and workflows involved in organizing, categorizing, and structuring information resources so that they can be stored, published, and reused in multiple ways. A content management system (CMS) is used to collect, manage and publish content, storing the content either as components or whole documents, while maintaining the links between components. It may also provides for content revision control.

Continuous Availability
A protocol, associated execution and ready state of functionality that virtually guarantees computing-system operational continuity in any downtime event. Continuous availability concerns itself with 1) the recovery of applications, data and data transactions committed up to the moment of system loss; and 2) seamless, 24x7 system availability that offsets any planned or unplanned downtime event.

Control Data
Data that guides a process. For example, indicators, flags, counters and parameters.

A cookie is an identifier which a Web application may use to associate a present visitor with their previous record with that company.

Cooperative Processing
A style of computer application processing in which the presentation, business logic, and data management are split among two or more software services that operate on one or more computers. In cooperative processing, individual software programs (services) perform specific functions that are invoked by means of parameterized messages exchanged between them.

Copy Management
The analysis of the business benefit realized by the cost of expenditure on some resource, tool, or application development.

Corporate Governance
Corporate governance is a wide framework of systems, rules, interfaces and principles that form the basis of fiduciary corporate culture and values.

Corporate Performance Management
An umbrella term used to describe the methodologies, metrics, processes and systems used to monitor and manage the business performance of an enterprise.

Corporate Semantic Web
Corporate semantic Web applies semantic Web technologies, a.k.a. semantic markup languages (for example, Resource Description Framework, Web Ontology Language and topic maps) to corporate Web content.

Cost Benefit Analysis
The analysis of the business benefit realized by the cost of expenditure on some resource, tool, or application development.

Critical Success Factors
Key areas of activity in which favorable results are necessary for a company to reach its goal.

Customer Relationship Management

A process or function that combines and/or summarizes data from one or more sources into a concise format for analysis or reporting.

Crow's Foot Notation
Crow's foot notation is a type of cardinality notation used in data modeling. In crow's foot notation, a single bar indicates one, a double bar indicates one and only one (for example, a single instance of a product can only be stored in one warehouse), a circle indicates zero and a crow's foot indicates many.

A data cube is a multidimensional structure that contains an aggregate value at each point, i.e., the result of applying an aggregate function to an underlying relation. Data cubes are used to implement online analytical processing (OLAP).

Currency Date
The date the data is considered effective. It is also known as the "as of" date or temporal currency.

Customer Advocacy
Customer advocacy is the perception that an organization does what is best for its customers, not just what is best for its own bottom line.

Customer Data Integration (CDI)
Customer data integration (CDI) is comprised of process and technology solutions for recognizing a customer at any touchpoint - while aggregating accurate, up-to-date knowledge about that customer and delivering it in an actionable form "just in time" to touchpoints.

Customer Relationship Management
The idea of establishing relationships with customers on an individual basis, then using that information to treat different customers differently. Customer buying profiles and churn analysis are examples of decision support activities that can affect the success of customer relationships.

This term refers to any type of Internet-based promotion. This includes Web sites, targeted e-mail, Internet bulletin boards, sites where customers can dial-in and download files, and sites that engage in internet commerce by offering products for sell over the Internet. The term doesn't have a strict meaning, though, and many marketing managers use it to cover any computer-based marketing tools.

A dashboard is a reporting tool that consolidates, aggregates and arrranges measurements, metrics (measurements compared to a goal) and sometimes scorecards on a single screen so information can be monitored at a glance. Dashboards differ from scorecards in being tailored to monitor a specific role or generate metrics reflecting a particular point of view; typically they do not conform to a specific management methodology.

Items representing facts, text, graphics, bit-mapped images, sound, analog or digital live-video segments. Data is the raw material of a system supplied by data producers and is used by information consumers to create information.

Data Access Tools
An end-user oriented tool that allows users to build SQL queries by pointing and clicking on a list of tables and fields in the data warehouse.

Data Acquisition
Identification, selection and mapping of source data to target data. Detection of source data changes, data extraction techniques, timing of data extracts, data transformation techniques, frequency of database loads and levels of data summary are among the difficult data acquisition challenges.

Data Analysis and Presentation Tools
Software that provides a logical view of data in a warehouse. Some create simple aliases for table and column names; others create data that identify the contents and location of data in the warehouse.

Data Appliance
A combination of hardware, software, DBMSs and storage, all under one umbrella  a black box that yields high performance in both speed and storage, making the BI environment simpler and more useful to the users.

Data Consumer
An individual, group, or application that receives data in the form of a collection. The data is used for query, analysis, and reporting.

Data Custodian
The individual assigned the responsibility of operating systems, data centers, data warehouses, operational databases, and business operations in conformance with the policies and practices prescribed by the data owner.

Data Dictionary
A database about data and database structures. A catalog of all data elements, containing their names, structures, and information about their usage. A central location for metadata. Normally, data dictionaries are designed to store a limited set of available metadata, concentrating on the information relating to the data elements, databases, files and programs of implemented systems.

Data Directory
A collection of definitions, rules and advisories of data, designed to be used as a guide or reference with the data warehouse. The directory includes definitions, examples, relations, functions and equivalents in other environments.

Data Element
The most elementary unit of data that can be identified and described in a dictionary or repository which cannot be subdivided.

Data Extraction Software
Software that reads one or more sources of data and creates a new image of the data.

Data Flow Diagram
A diagram that shows the normal flow of data between services as well as the flow of data between data stores and services.

Data Governance
Data governance is the practice of organizing and implementing policies, procedures and standards for the effective use of an organization's structured/unstructured information assets.

Data Integration
Pulling together and reconciling dispersed data for analytic purposes that organizations have maintained in multiple, heterogeneous systems. Data needs to be accessed and extracted, moved and loaded, validated and cleaned, and standardized and transformed.

Data Loading
The process of populating the data warehouse. Data loading is provided by DBMS-specific load processes, DBMS insert processes, and independent fastload processes.

Data Management
Controlling, protecting, and facilitating access to data in order to provide information consumers with timely access to the data they need. The functions provided by a database management system.

Data Management Software
Software that converts data into a unified format by taking derived data to create new fields, merging files, summarizing and filtering data; the process of reading data from operational systems. Data Management Software is also known as data extraction software.

Data Mapping
The process of assigning a source data element to a target data element.

Data Mart
A subset of the data resource, usually oriented to a specific purpose or major data subject, that may be distributed to support business needs.

Data Migration
Data migration is the process of transferring data from repository to another.

Data Mining
A technique using software tools geared for the user who typically does not know exactly what he's searching for, but is looking for particular patterns or trends. Data mining is the process of sifting through large amounts of data to produce data content relationships. It can predict future trends and behaviors, allowing businesses to make proactive, knowledge-driven decisions. This is also known as data surfing.

Data Model
A logical map that represents the inherent properties of the data independent of software, hardware or machine performance considerations. The model shows data elements grouped into records, as well as the association around those records.

Data Modeling
A method used to define and analyze data requirements needed to support the business functions of an enterprise. These data requirements are recorded as a conceptual data model with associated data definitions. Data modeling defines the relationships between data elements and structures

Data Owner
The individual responsible for the policy and practice decisions of data. For business data, the individual may be called a business owner of the data.

Data Partitioning
The process of logically and/or physically partitioning data into segments that are more easily maintained or accessed. Current RDBMS systems provide this kind of distribution functionality. Partitioning of data aids in performance and utility processing.

Data Pivot
A process of rotating the view of data.

Data Producer
A software service, organization, or person that provides data for update to a system-of-record.

Data Profiling
Data Profiling, a critical first step in data migration, automates the identification of problematic data and metadata and enables companies to correct inconsistencies, redundancies and inaccuracies in corporate databases.

Data Propagation
The distribution of data from one or more source data warehouses to one or more local access databases, according to propagation rules.

Data Quality
The narrow definition of data quality is that it's about data that is missing or incorrect. A broader definition is that data quality is achieved when a business uses data that is comprehensive, consistent, relevant and timely.

Data Replication
The process of copying a portion of a database from one environment to another and keeping the subsequent copies of the data in sync with the original source. Changes made to the original source are propagated to the copies of the data in other environments.

Data Repository
A logical partitioning of data where multiple databases that apply to specific applications or sets of applications reside. For example, several databases that support financial applications could reside in a single financial data repository.

Data Scrubbing
The process of filtering, merging, decoding, and translating source data to create validated data for the data warehouse.

Data Staging Area
a data staging area is a system that stands between the legacy systems and the analytics system, usually a data warehouse and sometimes an ODS. The data staging area is considered the "back room" portion of the data warehouse environment. The data staging area is where the extract, transform and load(ETL) takes place and is out of bounds for end users.

Data Steward
The data steward acts as the conduit between information technology (IT) and the business portion of a company with both decision support and operational help. The data steward has the challenge of guaranteeing that the corporation's data is used to its fullest capacity.

Data Store
A place where data is stored; data at rest. A generic term that includes databases and flat files.

Data Strategy
Data strategy reflects all the ways you capture, store, manage and use information.

Data Surfing
Data Mining.

Data Synchronization
The continuous harmonization of data attribute values between two or more different systems, with the end result being the data attribute values are the same in all of the systems.

Data Transfer
The process of moving data from one environment to another environment. An environment may be an application system or operating environment. See Data Transport.

Data Transformation
Creating "information" from data. This includes decoding production data and merging of records from multiple DBMS formats. It is also known as data scrubbing or data cleansing.

Data Transport
The mechanism that moves data from a source to target environment. See Data Transfer.

Data Visualization
Techniques for turning data into information by using the high capacity of the human brain to visually recognize patterns and trends. There are many specialized techniques designed to make particular kinds of visualization easy.

Data Warehouse
An implementation of an informational database used to store sharable data sourced from an operational database-of-record. It is typically a subject database that allows users to tap into a company's vast store of operational data to track and respond to business trends and facilitate forecasting and planning efforts.

Data Warehouse Architecture
An integrated set of products that enable the extraction and transformation of operational data to be loaded into a database for end-user analysis and reporting.

Data Warehouse Architecture Development
A SOFTWARE AG service program that provides an architecture for a data warehouse that is aligned with the needs of the business. This program identifies and designs a warehouse implementation increment and ensures the required infrastructure, skill sets, and other data warehouse foundational aspects are in place for a Data Warehouse Incremental Delivery.

Data Warehouse Engines
Relational databases (RDBMS) and Multi-dimensional databases (MDBMS). Data warehouse engines require strong query capabilities, fast load mechanisms, and large storage requirements.

Data Warehouse Incremental Delivery
A SOFTWARE AG program that delivers one data warehouse increment from design review through implementation

Data Warehouse Infrastructure
A combination of technologies and the interaction of technologies that support a data warehousing environment.

Data Warehouse Management Tools
Software that extracts and transforms data from operational systems and loads it into the data warehouse

Data Warehouse Network
An integrated network of data warehouses that contain sharable data propagated from a source data warehouse on the basis of information consumer demand. The warehouses are managed to control data redundancy and to promote effective use of the sharable data.

A large collection of data organized for rapid search and retrieval by a computer.

Database Auditing
Database auditing is the ability to continuously monitor, record, analyze and report on all user-level database activity

Database Marketing
Methods for creating successful marketing strategies and testing them.

Database Schema
The logical and physical definition of a database structure

Database Administrator.

DDL (Data Definition Language)
A language enabling the structure and instances of a database to be defined in a human and machine readable form. SQL contains DDL commands that can be used either interactively or within programming language source code to define databases and their components.

Decentralized Database
A centralized database that has been partitioned according to a business or end-user defined subject area. Typically ownership is also moved to the owners of the subject area.

Decentralized Warehouse
A remote data source that users can query/access via a central gateway that provides a logical view of corporate data in terms that users can understand. The gateway parses and distributes queries in real time to remote data sources and returns result sets back to users

Decision Support System (DSS)
A decision support system or tool is one specifically designed to allow business end users to perform computer generated analyses of data on their own. This system supports exception reporting, stop light reporting, standard repository, data analysis and rule-based analysis.

Decision tree
A decision tree is a graph of decisions and their possible consequences, (including resource costs and risks) used to create a plan to reach a goal. Decision trees are constructed in order to help with making decisions. A decision tree is a special form of tree structure. Decision tree has two other names: Regression trees approximate real-valued functions instead of being used for classification tasks. (e.g., estimate the price of a house or a patient's length of stay in a hospital) and Classification tree, if the Y is a categorical variable such as: sex (male or female), the result of a game (lose or win).

Degenerate Dimension
A degenerate dimension acts as a dimension key in the fact table but does not join a corresponding dimension table because all its interesting attributes have already been placed in other analytic dimensions.

Delivery Chain Management
A strategy for interactively managing your customers and prospects at every touchpoint to create value, one customer at a time.

Delta Update
Only the data that was updated between the last extraction or snapshot process and the current execution of the extraction or snapshot.

Denormalized Data Store
A data store that does not comply to one or more of several normal forms. See Normalization.

Dependent Data Mart
Also called an architected data mart. Shares common business rules, semantics, and definitions. A Dependent Data Mart reads meta data from a central meta data repository to define local meta data. This ensures that all components of the architecture are linked via common meta data.

Derived Data
Data that is the result of a computational step applied to reference of event data. Derived data is the result either of relating two or more elements of a single transaction (such as an aggregation), or of relating one or more elements of a transaction to an external algorithm or rule.

Design Interface
The mechanism by which customers specify exactly what they need.

Desktop Applications
Query and analysis tools that access the source database or data warehouse across a network using an appropriate database interface. An application that manages the human interface for data producers and information consumers.

A dimension is a structural attribute of a cube that is a list of members, all of which are of a similar type in the user's perception of the data. For example, all months, quarters, years, etc., make up a time dimension; likewise all cities, regions, countries, etc., make up a geography dimension. A dimension acts as an index for identifying values within a multi-dimensional array. If one member of the dimension is selected, then the remaining dimensions in which a range of members (or all members) are selected defines a sub-cube. If all but two dimensions have a single member selected, the remaining two dimensions define a spreadsheet (or a "slice" or a "page"). If all dimensions have a single member selected, then a single cell is defined. Dimensions offer a very concise, intuitive way of organizing and selecting data for retrieval, exploration and analysis.

Dimension Outrigger
A dimension ourigger is a second-level dimension table that further defines and gives meaning to the model.

Dirty Data
Inconsistent, missing, incomplete, or erroneous data. Source data often contains a high percentage of "dirty" data.

Disaster Recovery
A protocol and associated execution to recover lost computing-system usage (applications), data and data transactions committed up to the moment of system loss.

Document Object Model (DOM)
Document object model is a platform and language neutral interface that allows programs and scripts to dynamically access and update the content, structure and style of documents.

Document Type Definition (DTD)
Document type definition is a text file that specifies the meaning of each tag.

Internet-based companies that rely on digital technology and the use of the Web as the primary communication and interaction media.

A general condition wherein users cannot use or access computing systems, applications, data or information for a broad variety of reasons.

Distributed Relational Database Architecture. A database access standard defined by IBM.

Drill Anywhere
The ability to drill down to any dimension without having to follow the predefined drill paths established by an organizations IT department.*

Drill Down
A method of exploring detailed data that was used in creating a summary level of data. Drill down levels depend on the granularity of the data in the data warehouse.

See Decision Support System.

Data Warehouse Administrator.

Dynamic data exchange
An industry standard accepted by most horizontal application software for exchanging data among different software programs.

Dynamic Dictionary
A data dictionary that an application program accesses at run time.

Dynamic Queries
Dynamically constructed SQL that is usually constructed by desktop-resident query tools. Queries that are not pre-processed and are prepared and executed at run time.

E-business is simply doing business electronically which in most cases, means doing business on the Internet. The two main types of e-business are business-to-consumer (B2C) and business-to-business (B2B). A third, and less talked about, type of e-business is consumer-to-consumer (C2C).

E-commerce deals with using the Internet, digital communications and IT applications to enable the buying or selling process.

E-manifest allows carriers, brokers, or freight forwarders to comply with new regulations stemming from the Automated Commercial Environment (ACE) program.

A direct-to-consumer business practicing e-commerce. An e- tailer is a business that, if it werent for the Internet, would have transactions with consumers in a bricks-and- mortar retail stores.

Economic Value Added (EVA)
This is a value-based metric that is becoming popular with many companies. EVA is an integrated framework for performance measurement, value-based planning and incentive compensation developed by Stern Steward founders Joel Stern and G. Bennett Steward III. EVA is calculated by taking operation profits and deducting a charge for the cost of capital. Companies that have adopted EVA have frequently realized long-lasting improvements in operating efficiency, growth, morale, motivation and stock market value.*

Executive Information System.

Electronic Data Interchange (EDI)
EDI is the computer-to-computer exchange of normal business transactions including payments, information exchange and purchase order requests. The most basic EDI line consists of a computer-to-computer link. The second level incorporates an application-to-application design where individual companies links a minimum of one of their in- house systems to the EDI interface. The most elaborate version of EDI actually transform the way business procedures are executed to gain optimal productivity. These involve trend-institutions that evolve into a centralized EDI based functions.

End User Data
Data formatted for end-user query processing; data created by end users; data provided by a data warehouse.

End User Tool
Data delivery or ad hoc query interface that allows knowledge workers to access information in a data warehouse.

End-User Mindset
"Give me what I say I want, then I can tell you what I really want." To build a successful data warehouse, end users must be able to explore the possibilities.

A complete business consisting of functions, divisions, or other components used to accomplish specific objectives and defined goals.

Enterprise Application Integration (EAI)
EAI allows data sharing between unrelated systems in the organization, provides a single point of interface to which all applications and databases connect, resolves differences between systems, triggers processes and delivers data in the proper format to the proper destination.

Enterprise Architecture
Enterprise architecture is a comprehensive framework used to manage and align an organization's business processes, information technology (IT) software and hardware, local and wide area networks, people, operations and projects with the organization's overall strategy.

Enterprise Data
Data that is defined for use across a corporate environment.

Enterprise Data Fabric (EDF)
Enterprise data fabric or EDF is a data layer that separates data sources from applications, providing the means to solve the gridlock prevalent in distributed environments such as grid computing, service-oriented architecture (SOA) and event-driven architecture (EDA).

Enterprise Data Warehouse
An enterprise data warehouse is a centralized warehouse that services the entire enterprise.

Enterprise Information Integration (EII)
A collection of technologies and best practices for providing custom views into multiple data sources as a way of integrating data and content for real-time read and write access by applications.

Enterprise Information Management (EIM)
The processes, technologies and tools needed to turn data into information, information into knowledge and knowledge into plans that drive profitable business action.

Enterprise JavaBeans (EJB)
Enterprise JavaBeans are server component architecture that conform to the Sun EJB component model. The EJB may be used to create a business object and related content may be sent using Java server pages (JSPs).

Enterprise Modeling
The development of a common consistent view and understanding of data elements and their relationships across the enterprise.

Enterprise Performance Management
Performance management is an enterprise-wide program that provides a structured approach for deploying a company's strategy in a consistent and continuous manner. It gives an organization the capability to effectively communicate strategy and ensure that business processes are aligned to support the deployment of that strategy.

Enterprise Portal
The enterprise portal offers a Web-like solution to the problem of distributing business information, consolidating business intelligence objects (reports, documents, spreadsheets, data cubes, etc.) generated anywhere in the enterprise by any application and making them easily accessible, subject to security authorization, to non- technical users via standard browser technology.

Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP)
ERP systems are comprised of software programs which tie together all of an enterprise's various functions -- such as finance, manufacturing, sales and human resources. This software also provides for the analysis of the data from these areas to plan production, forecast sales and analyze quality. Today many organizations are realizing that to maximize the value of the information stored in their ERP systems, it is necessary to extend the ERP architectures to include more advanced reporting, analytical and decision support capabilities. This is best accomplished through the application of data warehousing tools and techniques.

Enterprise Risk Management (ERM)
The process of planning, organizing, leading and controlling the activities of an organization in order to minimize the effects of risk on its capital and earnings. ERM includes not only risks associated with accidental losses, but also financial, strategic, operational and other risks.*

Enterprise Storage
A shared central repository for information, connected to disparate computer systems, which provides common management, protection and information sharing capabilities.

Enterprise Structure Data
Enterprise structure data represents the structure of the enterprise, particularly for reporting business activity by responsibility.

Entity Identification
The identification of the entities involved in the subject area. Entity identification is the process of giving data entities unique data elements by which they can be identified.

Entity Relationship Diagramming
A process that visually identifies the relationships between data elements.

In the computer technology context, it refers to the conditions surrounding data, such as databases, data formats, servers, network and any other components that impact the data.*

Enterprise Resource Planning

A local area network protocol developed by Xerox Corporation in cooperation with DEC and Intel in 1976. Ethernet uses a bus topology and supports transfer rates of 10 Mbps. The Ethernet specification served as the basis for the IEEE 802.3 standard, which specifies the physical and lower software layers. Ethernet uses the CSMA/CD access method to handle simultaneous demands. It is one of the most widely implemented LAN standards.

ETL (extract, transform, load) software does just that  it extracts records/fields from one data source, converts the data to new formats and provides the ability to load the data to other target destinations, in other words data handling and processing that precedes final storage in the repository.

Event Analysis
A process of analyzing notifications and taking action based on the notification content.

Event Data
Data about business events (usually business transactions) that have historic significance or are needed for analysis by other systems. Event data may exist as atomic event data and aggregate data.

Event-Based Execution Rules
The process of identifying those tasks that must be successfully executed to completion, or the system events that must occur, before a given task is to be triggered for processing.

Event-Driven Architecture
Event-driven architecture (EDA) is an architectural style for distributed applications, in which certain discrete functions are packaged into modular, encapsulated, shareable components, some of which are triggered by the arrival of one or more event objects.

Executive Information Systems (EIS)
Tools programmed to provide canned reports or briefing books to top-level executives. They offer strong reporting and drill-down capabilities. Today these tools allow ad-hoc querying against a multi-dimensional database, and most offer analytical applications along functional lines such as sales or financial analysis.

Extended Intelligent Enterprise Architecture (XIE)
Foundational architecture composed of three core components  a zero-latency operational data store (ODS), an enterprise portal as an access mechanism and extensive integration capabilities.

The ability to easily add new functionality to existing services without major software rewrites or without redefining the basic architecture.

Extensible Stylesheet Language (XSL)
Extensible stylesheet language describes how data is presented. XSL may also be used to transform XML data into HTML/CSS documents on the Web servers.

Extract Date
The date data was extracted.

Extract Frequency
The latency of data extracts, such as daily versus weekly, monthly, quarterly, etc. The frequency that data extracts are needed in the data warehouse is determined by the shortest frequency requested through an order, or by the frequency required to maintain consistency of the other associated data types in the source data warehouse.

Extract Specification
The standard expectations of a particular source data warehouse for data extracts from the operational database system-of-record. A system-of-record uses an extract specification to retrieve a snapshot of shared data, and formats the data in the way specified for updating the data in the source data warehouse. An extract specification also contains extract frequency rules for use by the Data Access environment.

An internal network or intranet opened to selected business partners. Suppliers, distributors and other authorized users can connect to a companys network over the Internet or through private networks.

Fact Table
A central table in a data warehouse schema that contains numerical measures and keys relating facts to dimension tables. Fact tables contain data that describes specific events within a business, such as bank transactions or product sales.

A technology that typically replaces a specific DBMS load function. A fastload technology obtains significantly faster load times by preprocessing data and bypassing data integrity checks and logging.

Federated Data
The federated data warehouse approach supports the iterative development of a data warehousing system containing independent data marts.

A method of posting a transaction in first-in-first-out order. In other words, transactions are posted in the same order that the data producer entered them.

File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
A service that allows you to transfer files to and from other computers on the Internet. Anyone who has access to ftp can transfer publicly available files to his or her computer. Files retrieved from outside sources can contain viruses. All files retrieved from the Internet should be check with a virus protection program.

Saved sets of chosen criteria that specify a subset of information in a data warehouse.

Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB)
FASB was created in 1973, replacing the Accounting Principles Board and the Committee on Accounting Procedure of the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants before it. The FASB is a private body whose mission is to establish and improve standards of financial accounting and reporting for the guidance and education of the public, including issuers, auditors and users of financial information. The FASB publishes the Generally Accepted Accounting Procedures (GAAP).*

Financial Consolidation
The process of consuming data from different financial systems and combining that information through aggregation and consolidation to create financial analytic views and comprehensive financial statements, which are compliant with accounting and financial reporting standards.*

Financial Integrity
Refers to compliant and reliable financial data achieved through quality integrated systems and processes, strong internal control, validations to ensure accuracy and conformance with accounting and reporting standards.*

A combination of specialized hardware and software set up to monitor traffic between an internal network and an external network (i.e. the Internet). Its primary purpose if for security and is designed to keep unauthorized outsiders from tampering with or accessing information on a networked computer system.

First Normal Form
The result of normalizing to ensure that every attribute is dependent upon the key of an entity. In practice this is achieved by removing repeating groups and multi-valued attributes and modeling them as distinct entities.

Provide baseline metrics to support, track and measure the performance of an initiative.

Foreign Key
A foreign key is the primary key of one data structure that is placed into a related data structure to represent a relationship among those structures. Foreign keys resolve relationships, and support navigation among data structures.

Fraud Detection Application
The process of detecting patterns, trends or correlations in consumer or corporate behavior that might indicate that fraudulent activity is taking place; e.g., identifying potential or existing fraud through analysis and comparison of standard and aberrant behaviors.

The timing characteristics of the data.

Functional Data Warehouse
A warehouse that draws data from nearby operational systems. Each functional warehouse serves a distinct and separate group (such as a division), functional area (such as manufacturing), geographic unit, or product marketing group.

Gantt chart
A Gantt chart is a horizontal bar chart developed as a production control tool in 1917 by Henry L. Gantt, an American engineer and social scientist. A Gantt chart provides a graphical illustration of a schedule that helps to plan, coordinate, and track specific tasks in a project.

A software product that allows SQL-based applications to access relational and non-relational data sources.

Global Business Models
Provides access to information scattered throughout an enterprise under the control of different divisions or departments with different databases and data models. This type of data warehouse is difficult to build because it requires users from different divisions to come together to define a common data model for the warehouse.

Degree of summarization of data.

Grid Computing
A Web-based operation that will allow companies to share computing resources on demand.

GUI stands for Graphical User Interface.

Data allocated in an algorithmically randomized fashion in an attempt to evenly distribute data and smooth access patterns.

Hierarchical Relationships
Any dimension's members may be organized based on parent- child relationships, typically where a parent member represents the consolidation of the members which are its children. The result is a hierarchy, and the parent/child relationships are hierarchical relationships.

High Availability
A protocol and associated execution that ensures a certain relative degree of computing-system operational continuity in any downtime event.

High-level Enterprise Model
A formal, high-level description in business terms of the information needed and used to manage the entire business, understood by business users and IS personnel.

Historical Database
A database that provides an historical perspective on the data.

A product that can provide multidimensional analysis simultaneously of data stored in a multidimensional database and in an RDBMS. Becoming a popular architecture for server OLAP.

Horizontal Partitioning
Horizontal partitioning divides a single logical table into multiple physical tables based on the rows. All columns generally appear in the new tables, but each new table contains a subset of the original table's rows. The resultant tables may contain either discrete or overlapping subsets of the original table's data. Horizontal partitioning is employed when there is a regular need to access or to isolate a readily identifiable subset of the "parent" table's rows. This technique may be effective to meet security, distribution, and performance optimization needs.

A processing method in which the host computer controls the session. A host-driven session typically includes terminal emulation, front ending or client/server types of connections. The host determines what is displayed on the desktop, receives user input from the desktop, and determines how the application responds to the input.

A methodology of consolidating names and addresses. Today, householding refers to any grouping of information about a given person, family, household or company

Hyper Text Markup Langage (HTML)
HTML, or Hyper Text Markup Language, a subset of SGML, provides a tag set used to create an HTML document. The tags or elements tell the browser how to display the information. The tags are used to "mark," in a hierarchical format, the different components of the document. If you are going to create your own Web pages, you will need to gain an understanding of the workings of HTML.

An OLAP product that stores all data in a single cube which has all the application dimensions applied to it.

Immediate Processing
Processing that occurs at the time the request for processing is made. Data may be requested and updated in an immediate mode.

Impact Analysis
Identifying the impact of change on an object to its related objects.

Advertising has begun to be sold on websites all over the Web. It comes in the form of a banner which sits on the Web page much like an advertising banner is displayed at sporting arenas and stadiums. The spaces are usually sold in blocks of thousands of impressions. In this case, an impression is exactly the same as a hit. After purchasing an amount of impressions for your banner, you can be guaranteed that many people have hit the page containing an advertisement.

In-store display
A showcase of goods inside department or variety stores to encourage foot traffic and generate more sales.

Data warehouse implementation can be broken down into segments or increments. An increment is a defined data warehouse implementation project that has a specified beginning and end. An increment may also be referred to as a departmental data warehouse within the context of an enterprise.

Info Glut in Cyberspace
Too much data! (30+ million electronic mailboxes, 7000 CD- ROMs with 650 Megs, 5000+ online databases, 500 cable channels, etc.)

: Data that has been processed in such a way that it can increase the knowledge of the person who receives it. Information is the output, or finished goods," of information systems. Information is also what individuals start with before it is fed into a Data Capture transaction processing system.

Information Consumer
A person or software service that uses data to create information.

Information Infrastructure
Information infrastructure is a shared, evolving, open, standardized and heterogeneous installed base.

Information Needs Analysis
The identification and analysis of the needs for information required to satisfy a particular business driver.

Information System
An organized collection, processing, transmission and dissemination of information in accordance with defined procedures, whether automated or manual. Information systems are used to support high-level business decision making (typically ETL and BI systems involving a data warehouse).

Information Systems Architecture
The authoritative definition of the business rules, systems structure, technical framework and product backbone for business information systems. An information systems architecture consists of four layers: business architecture, systems architecture, technical architecture and product architecture.

Information Warehouse
IBM's approach to data warehousing that supports the implementation of either functional, central or decentralized warehouses.

Integrated Services Digital Network (ISDN)
ISDN is an international communications standard for sending voice, video and data over digital telephone lines. ISDN requires special metal wires and supports transfer rates of 64 Kbps. Most ISDN lines offered by telephone companies give you two lines at once, called B channels. You can use one line for voice and the other for data, or you can use both lines for data to give you data rates of 128 Kbps, four or five times the data rate provided by today's modems.

Intelligent Agent
A software routine that waits in the background and performs an action when a specified event occurs. For example, agents could transmit a summary file on the first day of the month or monitor incoming data and alert the user when certain transactions have arrived.

Interface Definition Language (IDL)
Interface definition language is the standard API for calling CORBA services.

This 20-letter word is often abbreviated as i18n when used by software engineers. Making a program useful in another country requires more than just replacing error messages from a new language. In software development, internationalization means designing a program so that it can be easily customized for various languages, scripts, units, currencies, and date/time formats. The counterpart of i18n is localization (l10n) which is adapting a program for use in a particular locale. In other words, internationalization makes a piece of software easy to localize.

The ability of various types of computers and programs to work together.

A procedure to obtain prioritized information needed to generate warehouse increments.

The subset of the Internet used internally by a company or organization. Unlike the Internet, intranets are private and accessible only from within the organization.

Inverted File Indexes
A more efficient method to access data in an ad-hoc or analysis environment. It maintains indexes to all values contained in an indexed field. Those values, in turn, can be used in any combination to identify records that contain them, without actually scanning them from disk.

Information Technology

IT Portfolio Management
IT portfolio management is the formal process for managing IT assets such as software, hardware, middleware, an IT project, internal staff, an application or external consulting.

IT Utility
An IT utility links servers, clients and storage from across a local environment, the Internet and/or a WAN to form virtual server, network and storage pools which may be dynamically allocated, provisioned and monitored to an application based upon business-driven policies and service levels.

The connector architecture specification (JCA Specification) is a standard architecture for integrating Java applications with existing enterprise information systems.

Java2 Platform Enterprise Edition defines a standard for developing multitier applications.

Java 2 Platform Micro Edition provides application-development platform for mobile devices including cell phones and PDAs.

A cross-platform source programming language that allows applications to be distributed over networks and the Internet.

Java Database Connectivity (JDBC)
Java database connectivity is the standard API for accessing relational data.

Java Messaging Service (JMS)
Java messaging service is the standard API for sending and receiving messages.

Java Naming Directory Interface (JNDI)
Java naming directory interface is the standard API for accessing information in the enterprise name and directory.

Java Server Page (JSP)
Java server pages are a way to create dynamic Web content. They may also be used to generate and consume XML between n-tier servers or between servers and clients.

Java API for XML-based RPC (JAX-RPC) is used to build Web applications and Web services, incorporating XML-based RPC functionality according to the simple object access protocol (SOAP) 1.1 specification.

An operation performed on tables of data in a relational DBMS in which the data from two tables is combined in a larger, more detailed joined table.

Joint Application Development (JAD)
JAD is a process originally developed for designing a computer-based system. It brings together business area people (users) and IT (Information Technology) professionals in a highly focused workshop. The advantages of JAD include a dramatic shortening of the time it takes to complete a project. It also improves the quality of the final product by focusing on the up-front portion of the development lifecycle, thus reducing the likelihood of errors that are expensive to correct later on.

JOLAP (Java Online Analytical Processing)
A Java application-programming interface (API) for the Java 2 Platform, Enterprise Edition (J2EE) environment that supports the creation, storage, access, and management of data in an online analytical processing (OLAP) application. Hyperion, IBM, and Oracle initiated the development of JOLAP intending it to be a counterpart to Java Database Connectivity (JDBC) specifically for OLAP.*

Journal File
A file that contains update activity for rollback and data recovery purposes. Examples of update activity are commit checkpoints, as well as "before" and "after" operational database images. A journal file may be used to construct snapshot information for the data warehouse.

Key Performance Indicator (KPI)
A business calculation that allows macro level insights into the business process to manage profitability.

Knowledge Management
The process of gathering, managing and sharing your employees' experience and expertise  their "intellectual capital."

Knowledge Worker
Anyone who works for a living at the tasks of developing or using knowledge. For example, a knowledge worker might be someone who works at any of the tasks of planning, acquiring, searching, analyzing, organizing, storing, programming, distributing, marketing or otherwise contributing to the transformation and commerce of information and those workers used at consuming that same knowledge.

Latency is a time delay between the moment something is initiated and the moment its first effect begins. RAM latency is the amount of time a computer needs to wait to get data from random access memory. Data latency is the delay time for data to be updated in a system. When data latency is reduced or eliminated, it is often said to be in "real time."

Leverage is knowing what actions will most effectively drive a desired outcome.

Lightweight Directory Access Protocol (LDAP)
Lightweight directory access protocol is based on the standards contained within the X.500 standard, but is significantly simpler. And unlike X.500, LDAP supports TCP/IP, which is necessary for any type of Internet access.

Local Access Database (LAD)
A database that serves individual systems and workgroups as the end point for shared data distribution. LADs are the "retail outlets" of the data warehouse network. They provide direct access to the data requested by specific systems or desktop query services. Data is propagated to LADs from data warehouses according to orders for subsets of certain shared data tables and particular attributes therein, or subsets of standard collections. This data is usually located on a LAN server. If servers are not available and the data is static, it may be located on the user's desktop. See Data Warehouse Network.

Local Directory
A data dictionary propagated from the repository to the desktop containing metadata used for developing desktop applications and for generating transactions. A local directory is also used to bind definitions of local data structures used by desktop applications to the data requested from servers.

Location Transparency
A mechanism that keeps the specific physical address of an object from a user. The physical location is resolved within the system so that operations can be performed without knowledge of the actual physical location.

Location-Aware Technology
Location-aware technology is the use of GPS (global positioning system), assisted GPS (A-GPS), Enhanced Observed Time Difference (EOTD), enhanced GPS (E-GPS) and other technologies in the cellular network and handset to locate a mobile user.

Logical Data Model
Actual implementation of a conceptual module in a database. It may take multiple logical data models to implement one conceptual data model. An LDM is a representation of business concepts laid out in a visual format that clearly shows these concepts and their various relationships

Magic Arrow
An arrow used in marketing materials that gives the illusion of an integrated and automated process.

Managed Availability
The ability of an organization to deliver consistent, predictable access to information for any user wherever, whenever and however the user needs it.

Market Basket
The term "market basket" refers to a specific type of basket or a fixed list of items used specifically to track the progress of inflation in an economy or specific market. The list used for such an analysis would contain a number of the most commonly bought food and household items. The variations in the prices of the items on the list from month to month give an indication of the overall development of price trends.

Market Segmentation
Segmentation is the process of partitioning markets into groups of potential customers with similar needs and/or characteristics who are likely to exhibit similar purchase behavior.

Market Share
A companys sales expressed as a percentage of the sales for the total industry.

Marketing Resource Management
Marketing resource management (MRM) refers to software that helps with the upfront planning of a marketing function and the coordination and collaboration of marketing resources.

A mashup is a lightweight tactical integration of multisourced applications or content into a single offering. Their primary business benefit is that they can quickly meet tactical needs with reduced development costs and improved user satisfaction.

Mass customization
The use of technology, such as the internet, to deliver customized services on a mass basis. This results in giving each customer whatever they ask for.

Master Data
Master data represents the parties to the transactions that record the operations of an enterprise. Two examples are customer and product.

Master Data Management
Master data management (MDM) is business context data that contains details (definitions and identifiers) of internal and external objects involved in business transactions (e.g., customer, product, reporting unit, NPS, market share). It explains the context within which you do business and holds the business rules. Master data management is a series of processes put in place to ensure that reference data is kept up to date and coordinated across an enterprise. Master data management is the organization, management and distribution of corporately adjudicated information with widespread use in the organization.

Meta Data
Meta data is data that expresses the context or relativity of data. Examples of meta data include data element descriptions, data type descriptions, attribute/property descriptions, range/domain descriptions and process/method descriptions. The repository environment encompasses all corporate meta data resources: database catalogs, data dictionaries and navigation services. Meta data includes name, length, valid values and description of a data element. Meta data is stored in a data dictionary and repository. It insulates the data warehouse from changes in the schema of operational systems.

Meta Data Synchronization
The process of consolidating, relating and synchronizing data elements with the same or similar meaning from different systems. Meta data synchronization joins these differing elements in the data warehouse to allow for easier access.

Meta Muck
An environment created when meta data exists in multiple products and repositories (DBMS catalogs, DBMS dictionaries, CASE tools warehouse databases, end-user tools and repositories).

A system of principles, practices, and procedures applied to a specific branch of knowledge.

A framework to establish and collect measurements of success/failure on a regulated, timed basis that can be audited and verified.

Microsimulation is a computational technique used to predict the behavior of a system by predicting the behavior of microlevel units that make up the system.

Mid-Tier Data Warehouses
To be scalable, any particular implementation of the data access environment may incorporate several intermediate distribution tiers in the data warehouse network. These intermediate tiers act as source data warehouses for geographically isolated sharable data that is needed across several business functions.

A communications layer that allows applications to interact across hardware and network environments.

Mini Marts
A small subset of a data warehouse used by a small number of users. A mini mart is a very focused slice of a larger data warehouse.

A query that consumes a high percentage of CPU cycles.

An acronym for millions of instructions per second. MIPS is mistakenly considered a relative measure of computing capability among models and vendors. It is a meaningful measure only among versions of the same processors configured  with identical peripherals and software.

Model-Driven Architecture
Model-driven architecture is a registered trademark of the Object Management Group (OMG). It describes OMG's proposed approach to separating business-level functionality from the technical nuances of its implementation The premise behind OMG's Model-Driven Architecture and the broader family of model-driven approaches (MDAs) is to enable business-level functionality to be modeled by standards, such as Unified Modeling Language (UML) in OMG's case; allow the models to exist independently of platform-induced constraints and requirements; and then instantiate those models into specific runtime implementations, based on the target platform of choice.

To represent how a business works and functions in such a way that it can productively be used as a means to simulate the real world. Executives, planners, managers and analysts use modeling to simulate and test operational and financial planning assumptions.*

Massive Parallel Processing. The "shared nothing" approach of parallel computing.

Multi-Value Attribute
Multi-value is a database model with a physical layout that allows systematic manipulation and presentation of messy, natural, relational, data in any form, first normal to fifth normal.

Data structure with three or more independent dimensions.

Multidimensional Array
A group of data cells arranged by the dimensions of the data. For example, a spreadsheet exemplifies a two- dimensional array with the data cells arranged in rows and columns, each being a dimension. A three-dimensional array can be visualized as a cube with each dimension forming a side of the cube, including any slice parallel with that side. Higher dimensional arrays have no physical metaphor, but they organize the data in the way users think of their enterprise. Typical enterprise dimensions are time, measures, products, geographical regions, sales channels, etc.

Multidimensional Database (MDBS and MDBMS)
A powerful database that lets users analyze large amounts of data. An MDBS captures and presents data as arrays that can be arranged in multiple dimensions.

Multidimensional Query Language
A computer language that allows one to specify which data to retrieve out of a cube. The user process for this type of query is usually called slicing and dicing. The result of a multi-dimensional query is either a cell, a two- dimensional slice, or a multi-dimensional sub-cube.

Multidimenstional Analysis
The objective of multi-dimensional analysis is for end users to gain insight into the meaning contained in databases. The multi-dimensional approach to analysis aligns the data content with the analyst's mental model, hence reducing confusion and lowering the incidence of erroneous interpretations. It also eases navigating the database, screening for a particular subset of data, asking for the data in a particular orientation and defining analytical calculations. Furthermore, because the data is physically stored in a multi- dimensional structure, the speed of these operations is many times faster and more consistent than is possible in other database structures. This combination of simplicity and speed is one of the key benefits of multi-dimensional analysis.

XML namespaces provide a simple method for qualifying element and attribute names used in XML documents by associating them with namespaces identified by URI references.

Nearline Storage
Data that are not on line must be near line, i.e., capable of being accessed and placed on line within 15 seconds of the access request. Typically, archived data will be kept in nearline storage.

Network File Share
A network file share is a folder (also known as a directory) on a server that is shared out to users on a local area network (LAN) or intranet. Users attach to this file share and can drag and drop files/folders or modify the files/folder within the file share. A file share is typically mapped to a users local computer as a logical drive, such as X:. It is accessed just like the other drives on your computer, such as the A: or C: drives. File shares are a fast and secure method for managing content on a remote server.

Niche Marketing
A marketing segmentation strategy in which the firm focuses on serving one segment of the market. Similar to segmented marketing, but a niche is a small distinguishable segment that can be uniquely served.

The process of reducing a complex data structure into its simplest, most stable structure. In general, the process entails the removal of redundant attributes, keys, and relationships from a conceptual data model.

A null value tells you the value for that row is either missing, unknown, not yet know or inapplicable. Placing a zero in the row would not reflect the accurate state of the row, because zero is a value. This way you can search for missing data and SQL supports the notion of null values.

The Organization for the Advancement of Structured Information (OASIS) is a non-for-profit consortium that advances electronic business by promoting open, collaborative development of interoperability specifications.

A person, place, thing, or concept that has characteristics of interest to an environment. In terms of an object-oriented system, an object is an entity that combines descriptions of data and behavior.

Object Description
All the properties and associations that describe a particular object.

Object Management Group (OMG)
Object Management Group is the industry group dedicated to promoting object-oriented (OO) technology and its standardization.

Object-Process Methodology (OPM)
A conceptual modeling approach for complex systems that integrates in a single view the functional, structural and procedural aspects of the modeled system using formal yet intuitive graphics that is translated on the fly to a subset of natural language.

Online Analytical Processing

OLAP Client
End user applications that can request slices from OLAP servers and provide two- dimensional or multi-dimensional displays, user modifications, selections, ranking, calculations, etc., for visualization and navigation purposes. OLAP clients may be as simple as a spreadsheet program retrieving a slice for further work by a spreadsheet- literate user or as high-functioned as a financial modeling or sales analysis application.

Online transaction processing. OLTP describes the requirements for a system that is used in an operational environment.

One-to-One Marketing
One of the foundation principles of CRM  treating each customer as an individual.

Online Analytical Processing
Processing that supports the analysis of business trends and projections.

Online Transaction Processing
Processing that supports the daily business operations.

Open Source
Open source software is usually freely available - meaning the customer can download it, install it and begin using it without paying.

Open architecture
When a manufacturer publicly publishes the specifications for their computer, the computer is said to have an open architecture. This allows other companies to create add-ons to enhance and customize the machine, and to make peripheral devices that work properly with it. With a closed architecture, only the original manufacturer can make add-ons and peripherals.

Open Database Connectivity (ODBC)
Open database connectivity is a standard for database access co-opted by Microsoft from the SQL Access Group consortium.

Operational Consolidation
The process of combining multiple organizations and their associated human capital into a single unified system. Consolidation includes the merging and adjustment of relevant information, data, systems, resources and reports.*

Operational Data Store (ODS)
An ODS is an integrated database of operational data. Its sources include legacy systems and it contains current or near term data. An ODS may contain 30 to 60 days of information, while a data warehouse typically contains years of data.

Operational Database
The database-of-record, consisting of system-specific reference data and event data belonging to a transaction-update system. It may also contain system control data such as indicators, flags, and counters. The operational database is the source of data for the data warehouse. It contains detailed data used to run the day-to-day operations of the business. The data continually changes as updates are made, and reflect the current value of the last transaction.

Operational Performance
Measurable outcomes relative to stated enterprisewide operational goals.*

Operational Systems
Applications that run the business on a day-to-day basis using real-time data (typically OLTP systems).

A message sent to data access services which triggers the delivery of required data. There are three types of orders: select order, transform order, and propagate order.

Organizational Intelligence
Organizational intelligence is the capacity for the enterprise to collectively know itself in relationship to its environment and to act on that knowing in a way that furthers its position with customers and the marketplace

Organizational Intelligence
Organizational intelligence is the capacity for the enterprise to collectively know itself in relationship to its environment and to act on that knowing in a way that furthers its position with customers and the marketplace.

Packaged Analytic Applications
Value-added solutions embedding knowledge of the process and expressing specific metrics for a given set of business functions based on industry best practices.

The ability to perform functions in parallel.

Splitting of target data into smaller units.

Measurable outcomes relative to stated goals.*

Performance Accountability
Assuming responsibility for achieving goals and disclosing present and future variances against those goals.*

Performance Alert
A performance alert is notification via email, portal or wireless device of a key trend or business event (such as a customer or supply chain activity) that is associated with a goal.

Performance management
Performance management links strategy with corporate objectives in ways that make the best use of a company's resources by coordinating the efforts of every member of the organization.

Performance Scorecarding
A strategic management process designed to translate an organizations mission statement and overall business strategy into specific, quantifiable goals and to monitor the organizations performance in terms of achieving those goals. Performance scorecarding analyzes an organizations overall performance - not just financial returns -so that future performance can be predicted and proper actions taken to create the desired future.*

Performance-Accountable Organization
An organization that delivers continuous performance improvement and accountability in all of its activities, from all of its managers, across the enterprise. When an organization is truly performance-accountable, CEOs and CFOs can report openly and comprehensively on performance and set expectations with confidence.*

Persistent Data
Data that outlasts the execution of a particular program, provides the records of the enterprise and is available for reuse.

Pervasive Computing
A ubiquitous, wireless, always-on, networked world.

The pharmacological science relating to the detection, assessment, understanding and prevention of adverse effects, particularly long term and short term side effect, of medicines. It is gaining importance for doctors and scientists as the number of stories in the media of drug recalls increases.

Planned Downtime
Scheduled, usually duration-fixed loss of computing-system usage due operations (such as database backups), maintenance (such as database file modifications or application work) and periodic events (such as hardware/software/operating-system upgrades or disaster recovery testing).

Any base of technologies on which other technologies or processes are built and operated to provide interoperability, simplify implementation, streamline deployment and promote maintenance of solutions.*

See Data Loading and Data Replication.

A Web site that is the first place people visit when using the Web. Typically, a portal site has a catalog of sites, a search engine or both. A portal site may also offer e-mail and other services to entice people to sue that site as the main point of entry or portal to the Web. Portals are designed to be the front door through which a user accesses links to relevant sites.

Portfolio Management
The budgetary funding mechanism for all business intelligence projects. It includes all BI projects and all the reporting and analysis projects funded in an enterprise.

Predictive Analytics
Methods of directed and undirected knowledge discovery, relying on statistical algorithms, neural networks and optimization research to prescribe (recommend) and predict (future) actions based on discovering, verifying and applying patterns in data to predict the behavior of customers, products, services, market dynamics and other critical business transactions.

Predictive Customer Relationship Management (CRM)
The discipline of getting to know your customers by performing complex analysis on data about them.

Primary key
A column or combination of columns whose values uniquely identify a row or record in the table. The primary key(s) will have a unique value for each record or row in the table.

Process Management
A set of functions supporting the definition of inter- related process steps and the management of their execution across a variety of hardware and software platforms; used mainly by data replication.

Product Architecture
One of the four layers of an information systems architecture. It describes standards to be followed in each portion of the technical architecture and vendor-specific tools and services to apply in developing and running applications.

Production Data
Source data which is subject to change. It is a data capture system, often on a corporation's mainframe

Program Management Office (PMO)
Effort to manage an organization in a cross-functional manner which includes prioritizing projects, distributing funding, communicating to various stakeholders, and measuring ROI and marketing efforts throughout the enterprise.

Project Management/Development
Application of good business, project and quality principles to various situations.

Propagated Data
Data that is transferred from a data source to one or more target environments according to propagation rules. Data propagation is normally based on transaction logic.

A set of conventions that govern the communications between processes. Protocol specifies the format and content of messages to be exchanged.

Public Key Infrastructure (PKI)
Public-key infrastructure is the combination of software, encryption technologies and services designed to protect the security of communications and business transactions on the Internet.

Query From Hell

Quality Assurance
The process of ensuring a correct result.

A (usually) complex SELECT statement for decision support. See Ad-Hoc Query or Ad-Hoc Query Software.

Query Governor
A facility that terminates a database query when it has exceeded a predefined threshold.

Query Response Times
The time it takes for the warehouse engine to process a complex query across a large volume of data and return the results to the requester.

Query Tools
Software that allows a user to create and direct specific questions to a data base. These tools provide the means for pulling the desired information from a database. They are typically SQL-based tools and allow a user to define data in end-user language.

Relational Database Management System.

RDBMS Concurrence
Overlapping, concurrent execution of code segments.

Real Time
Refers to the utmost level of timeliness regarding the use of information.

Real-Time Data
Up-to-the-second, detailed data used to run the business and accessed in read/write mode, usually through predefined transactions.

Recovery Point Objective RPO)
The intent to recover data up to a specific point in a transaction stream following a downtime event. Expresses the amount of data an organization may tolerate to lose.

Recovery TIme Objective (RTO)
The intent to recover lost applications, within specific time limitations, to assure a certain level of operational continuity. Expresses the amount of time a business will tolerate the computing system (hardware, software, services) to be offline.

The storage of multiple copies of identical data.

Redundancy Control
Management of a distributed data environment to limit excessive copying, update, and transmission costs associated with multiple copies of the same data. Data replication is a strategy for redundancy control with the intention to improve performance.

Reference Data
Reference data is any kind of data that is used solely to categorize other data found in a database, or solely for relating data in a database to information beyond the boundaries of the enterprise.

Refresh Technology
A process of taking a snapshot from one environment and moving it to another environment overlaying old data with the new data each time.

Regression Tree
Regression tree approximate real-valued functions instead of being used for classification tasks. (e.g., estimate the price of a house or a patient's length of stay in a hospital).

Regulatory Compliance
The act of complying with government legislation and mandates requiring public companies to provide specific financial reporting and disclosure. Regulators include the SEC, tax authorities and banking authorities, such as the FDIC in the U.S. Various international versions of such mandates also are in place. There are three areas of compliance generally considered of greatest impact today. In the U.S., Sarbanes-Oxley strengthens rules regarding public audit, corporate responsibility, financial disclosures and brokerage practices, and specifies penalties for noncompliance. In Europe, IAS 2005 refers to the 15 countries in Europe moving to one accounting standard mandated by the International Accounting Standards Board, and adopted by the European Union. Basel II is focused specifically on global banks and financial institutions. Basel II ensures liquidity of those institutions for the protection of public trust.*

Relational Database
A collection of data items organized as a set of formally described tables from which data can be accessed or reassembled in many different ways without the need to reorganize the database tables.*

Relational Database Management System (RDBMS )
Database technology that was designed to support high volume transaction processing (OLTP) and is typically the foundation for a data warehouse.*

A condition often related to computer hardware or subsystems whereby a single component (server, application, database, etc.) or group of components demonstrates the ability to perform its physical function.

Remote Method Invocation (RMI)
Remote method invocation is used for creating and or distributing Java objects.

Replicated Data
Data that is copied from a data source to one or more target environments based on replication rules. Replicated data can consist of full tables or rectangular extracts.

An automated business process or related functionality that provides a detailed, formal account of relevant or requested information.*

Repository Environment
The Repository environment contains the complete set of a business's metadata. It is globally accessible As compared to a data dictionary, the repository environment not only contains an expanded set of metadata, but can be implemented across multiple hardware platforms and database management systems (DBMS).

Return on Investment
Describes the calculation of the financial return on a business initiative that incurs some cost.

Return On Investment (ROI)
The time it takes improvements in revenue or cost savings directly related to a companys particular investment to exceed the total cost of that investment.*

Radio frequency indentification tags are transponders, devices that upon receiving a radio signal transmit one of their own. Transponder technology was first developed during World War II as a means of identifying friendly aircraft. While their main function remains identification, they can also be used for detecting and locating objects as well as monitoring an objects condition and environment.

Risk Management
A risk is a potential problem. Managing the situation so that minimum loss or damage will result if the risk materializes.

Provides developers an implementation of the Java RMI API over the Object Management Group (OMG) standard Internet Inter-Orb-Protocol (IIOP). This allows developers to write remote interfaces between clients and servers.

Return on Investment

ROLAP (Relational OLAP)
A product that provides multidimensional analysis of data, aggregates and metadata stored in an RDBMS. The multidimensional processing may be done within the RDBMS, a mid-tier server or the client. A 'merchant' ROLAP is one from an independent vendor which can work with any standard RDBMS.

Roll Up Queries
Queries that summarize data at a level higher than the previous level of detail.

Rollback and undo mean essentially the same: To rollback or undo a transaction prior to a commit of that transaction. (RDB term)

Rolling Forecast
This is a term that describes a forecasting method that shifts planning away from historic budgeting and forecasting and moves it toward a continuous predictive modeling method. It requires access to relevant information from multiple data sources as well as business processes throughout the enterprise. Rolling forecasts can be updated continuously throughout the year thus potentially improving accountability.*

Remote Procedure Call.

On July 30, 2002, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act (Public Law 104-204) went into effect, and changed the corporate landscape in the United States in regard to financial reporting and auditing for publicly traded companies. The law establishes stringent financial reporting requirements for companies doing business in the United States. It was designed to make the executives of publicly traded companies more responsible and accountable for oversight of their companies.

Simple API for XML (SAX) is an event-based interface for processing XML documents.

The ability to scale to support larger or smaller volumes of data and more or less users. The ability to increase or decrease size or capability in cost-effective increments with minimal impact on the unit cost of business and the procurement of additional services.

A diagrammatic representation of the structure or framework of something. Its the logical and physical definition of data elements, physical characteristics and interrelationships.

An application or custom user interface that helps manage an organizations performance by optimizing and aligning organizational units, business processes and individuals. It should also provide internal and industry benchmarks, as well as goals and targets that help individuals understand their contributions to the organization. The use of scorecards spans the operational, tactical and strategic aspects of the business and its decisions. Often, methodologies derived from internal best practices or an external industry methodology is used for scorecarding.*

Second Normal Form
The result of normalizing to ensure that a data model contains no partial key dependencies. In practice, when entities have compound keys, seek out any attribute that is dependent upon only part of the key. Whatever business thing is identifiable by that part of the key is an entity, and the 2NF violation is an attribute of that entity.

Secondary Key
A secondary key is a set of one or more attributes whose value identifies a set of occurrences in a data structure that share common characteristics. Access by secondary keys may return multiple occurrences, where access by a primary key is assured to find no more than one occurrence.

The ability to provide differing access to individuals according to the classification of data and the user�s business function, regardless of the variations.

Secure Sockets Layer (SSL)
Secure sockets layer is a security technology that is commonly used to secure server to browser transactions.

A SQL statement (command) that specifies data retrieval operations for rows of data in a relational database.

Small entrepreneurial manufacturer.

Semantic Mapping
The mapping of the meaning of a piece of data.

A service that provides standard functions for clients in response to standard messages from clients. Note: A commonly used definition of server also refers to the physical computer from which services are provided.

Service-Oriented Architecture (SOA)
A service-oriented architecture is a collection of services that communicate with each other. The services are self-contained and do not depend on the context or state of the other service. They work within a distributed systems architecture.

Allow users to run Java code on the server and send HTML pages to a browser.

Share of Wallet
The percentage of a customers requirements that are filled by a particular brand of product or service.

Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP)
Simple object access protocol is a World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) specification that facilitates the interoperability between a broad mixture of programs and platforms.

Six Sigma
A rigorous and disciplined methodology that utilizes data and statistical analysis to measure and improve a companys operational performance, practices and systems. Six Sigma identifies and prevents defects in manufacturing and service-related processes. In many organizations, it simply means a measure of quality that strives for near perfection.*

Slice and Dice
A term used to describe a complex data analysis function provided by MDBMS tools.

Symmetrical Multi-Processing. The "shared everything" approach of parallel computing.

Snowflake Schema
A snowflake schema is a set of tables comprised of a single, central fact table surrounded by normalized dimension hierarchies. Each dimension level is represented in a table. Snowflake schema implement dimensional data structures with fully normalized dimensions. Star schema are an alternative to snowflake schema.

Social Network Analysis
Social netowrk analysis (SNA) is the use of information and knowledge from many people and their personal networks. It involves collecting massive amounts of data from multiple sources, analyzing the data to identify relationships and mining it for new information.

Source Database
An operational, production database or a centralized warehouse that feeds into a target database.

Structured Query Language. A structured query language for accessing relational, ODBC, DRDA, or non-relational compliant database systems.

SQL Query Tool
An end-user tool that accepts SQL to be processed against one or more relational databases.

Conformity to ANSI standards for Structured Query Language specifications.

Standard Query
A stored procedure of a recently executed query. Technically, a standard query may be stored on the desktop as "canned " SQL and passed as dynamic SQL to the server database to execute. This is undesirable unless the stored query is seldom executed.

Star Schema
A star schema is a set of tables comprised of a single, central fact table surrounded by de-normalized dimensions. Each dimension is represented in a single table. Star schema implement dimensional data structures with de- normalized dimensions. Snowflake schema are an alternative to star schema. A relational database schema for representing multidimensional data. The data is stored in a central fact table, with one or more tables holding information on each dimension. Dimensions have levels, and all levels are usually shown as columns in each dimension table.

Static Query
A stored, parameterized procedure, optimized for access to a particular data warehouse.

A technique using colored circles to identify the content of a data element. The colors are defined by a set of predefined thresholds.

Subject Oriented Databases
Rather than build one massive, centralized data warehouse, most companies are building numerous subject-oriented warehouses to serve the needs of different divisions.

Summarization Tables
These tables are created along commonly used access dimensions to speed query performance, although the redundancies increase the amount of data in the warehouse. See Aggregated Data.

Supply Chain
The optimal flow of product from site of production through intermediate locations to the site of final use.

Supply Chain Analytics
The process of extracting and presenting supply chain information to provide measurement, monitoring, forecasting and management of the chain.

Surrogate Key
A surrogate key is a single-part, artificially established identifier for an entity. Surrogate key assignment is a special case of derived data - one where the primary key is derived. A common way of deriving surrogate key values is to assign integer values sequentially.

Syntactic Mapping
The mapping required to unravel the syntax of information.

Systems Architecture
One of the four layers of the information systems architecture. The systems architecture represents the definitions and inter-relationships between applications and the product architecture.

Tactical Data Warehouse Development
The process of selecting a portion of an enterprise and implementing a data warehouse. The process includes constructing a data model for the area, determining the data warehouse architecture, constructing the physical model, and populating the warehouse database. It also includes creating or buying the applications to access the data warehouse, prototyping the tactical warehouses (access definitions, views, etc.) and incorporating end-user feedback.

There Ain't No Such Thing As A Free Lunch! In developing a data warehouse, there is work involved, and there is no "free lunch."

Target Database
The database in which data will be loaded or inserted.

Technical Architecture
One of the four layers of the information systems architecture. The technical architecture defines and describes the interfaces, parameters and protocols used by the product and systems architecture.

A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet.

Time Variant
A time-variant system has explicit dependence on time, does not have an impulse response in the normal sense and is not stationary. A time-variant value refers to cryptography, when a value changes with each transaction or with each message value.

Tool Encyclopedias
Encyclopedias, repositories or dictionaries used by application development tools. The non-definable "repository" used by a tool.

Total Cost of Ownership (TCO)
The cost to own a product throughout its life.*

Transaction Activity Data
Transaction activity data represents the transactions that operational systems are designed to automate.

Transaction Audit Data
Transaction audit data tracks the progress of an individual transaction, such as Web logs and database logs.

Transactional System
An information system designed to store and record day-to-day business information, often structured around events, business processes or business activities. These systems are optimized for storing large volumes of data, but not for analyzing that data.*

Rules applied to change data.

Triggering Data
Data that selects and loads data on a scheduled basis

Universal description, discovery and integration (UDDI) is a an online directory that gives businesses and organizations a uniform way to describe their services, discover other companies' services and understand the methods required to conduct business with a specific company.

Undo and rollback mean essentially the same: To rollback or undo a transaction prior to a commit of that transaction. (RDB term)

Unit of Work Consolidation
The process of consolidating multiple updates to a single row image into a single update.

Unplanned Downtime
Unanticipated, duration-variable loss of computing-system usage due to natural disasters, power outages, hardware or software failures, and human error/intervention.

Unstructured Data
Any document, file, image, report, form, etc. that has no defined, standard structure that would enable convenient storage in automated processing devices; it cannot be defined in terms of rows and columns or records, and the data cannot be examined with standard access. "Unstructured data is email, spreadsheets, documents and so forth. Some of the most valuable information in the corporation resides in unstructured data." - Bill Inmon

Not allowed in a data warehouse.

An "upsert" in the combination of an INSERT and UPDATE statement, built into a single clause. The usert model is especially useful in data warehouses where you need the following logic: IF FOUND THEN UPDATE ELSE INSERT; Upserts are great for processes that you normally require multiple insert as select statements IAS) statements. This is because upserts remove the need for row-at-a-time processing and enable the entire transaction as a single set.

Uniform Resource Locator. The URL is the path information in an HTML coded source file used to locate another document or image. The format for the URL is scheme://host- domain[:port]/path/filename.

User datagram protocol is a connectionless protocol that runs on top of IP networks.

The ability for a single definition to maintain information about multiple physical instantiations.

Vertical Partitioning
Vertical partitioning divides a single logical table into multiple physical tables based on the columns. All rows may appear in the new tables, but each new table contains a subset of the original table's columns. The set of columns may be redundant across tables, and will necessarily be so for the columns that implement keys and indexes. Columns for row-level metadata are also implemented in all resultant tables. Vertical partitioning is employed when there is a regular need to access or to isolate a readily identifiable subset of the "parent" table's columns. This technique may be effective to meet security, distribution, and usability requirements.

Visibility is seeing what is coming to know if and when change is needed.

An acronym for Virtually Integrated Technical Architecture Lifecycle.

VITAL Compliance
Conformance to the design objectives and principles, distributed computing styles, development approaches, standards, and data-distribution and access techniques; functional compatibility with the VITAL technical architecture.

Very Large Databases.

Targeted vertical portals that are aimed at specific interest groups and focus on providing consumers with a gateway to information from other sources.

Warehouse Business Directory
Provides business professionals access to the data warehouse by browsing a catalog of contents.

Warehouse Technical Directory
Defines and manages an information life cycle, a definition of warehouse construction, change management, impact analysis, distribution and operation of a warehouse.

Web Analytics
Tools that offer analytical capabilities beyond the usual access log file, i.e., clickstream data, analyses. Some of the names some people have given this type of analysis are Web mining, data Web housing, e-business intelligence, e- business analysis and e-intelligence.

Web Services
Web services are a new way of connecting business. Web services are platform-neutral and vendor-independent protocols that enable any form of distributed processing to be performed using XML and Web-based technologies.

Web Services Description Language (WSDL)
Web services description language is a specification that is published to a UDDI directory. WSDL provides interface/implementation details of available Web services and UDDI Registrants. It leverages XML to describe data types, details, interface, location and protocols.

Web Services Interoperability Organization (WS-I)
The Web Services Interoperability Organization is an open industry effort chartered to promote Web Services interoperability across platforms, applications, and programming languages. The organization brings together a diverse community of Web services leaders to respond to customer needs by providing guidance, recommended practices, and supporting resources for developing interoperable Web services.

World Wide Web Consortium (W3C)
The World Wide Web Consortium has become the primary organization for creating Web specifications, and whose principal goal is interoperability.

Web services for remote portlets (WSRP) is an OASIS specification for using Web services to deliver information to Internet portals will help to promote reuse.

XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language)
An XML-based markup language developed for financial reporting. It provides a standards-based method to prepare, publish (in a variety of formats), reliable extract and automatically exchange financial statements.*

eXtensible Markup Language; a subset of SGML defined by W3C.

XML Schema
Schemas are used to define and document XML applications.

XML/A (XMLA for Analysis)
A set of XML message interfaces that use the industry standard simple object access protocol, or SOAP, to define the data access interaction between a client application and an analytical data provider (OLAP and data mining) working over the Internet. The jointly published XML/A specification allows corporate developers, third-party tool vendors and other partners to query analytical data providers in a standard way, just as it has been possible to do with all the SQL-based relational databases for many years. The goal for XML/A is to provide an open, standard access application program interface for the OLAP providers and consumers.*

XML path language's primary purpose is to address parts of an XML document. In support of this primary purpose, it also provides basic facilities for manipulation of strings, numbers and booleans.

XML pointer language is based on the XML Path language (XPath) and supports addressing into the internal structures of XML documents. It allows for examination of a hierarchical document structure and choice of its internal parts based on various properties, such as element types, attribute values, character content and relative position.

Is a query language that uses the structure of XML intelligently. It can express queries across all these kinds of data, whether physically stored in XML or viewed as XML via middleware. XQuery is designed to be broadly applicable across many types of XML data sources.

Extensible stylesheet language transformation (XSLT) is a language for transforming XML documents into other XML documents. XSLT is designed for use as part of XSL, which is a stylesheet language for XML.

Zero Latency
There is no time lapse between receipt of critical information and the ability to analyze and act on that information.

* definition provided by Hyperion.

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