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Meta Data and Data Administration:
XML: The Global Meta Data Standard

  Column published in DM Review Magazine
February 2000 Issue
  By David Marco

XML (eXtensible Markup Language) is one of the hottest areas in all of technology today. In fact, it's difficult to find a magazine that doesn't have one or more articles addressing this topic. In this month's column, we will look at how XML is impacting the meta data industry and the reasons why XML will impact every corporation in the world.

Many companies (Sun Micro-systems, in particular) believe that the network is the database. If this is true, then Internet Web pages have become the biggest database of them all. With e-business solutions expected to grow to well over a $100 billion industry by the year 2002 and the number of Web users projecting to reach 329 million by 2002, this database will continue to grow at an exponential rate.

The Web is also the largest distributed environment in the world. As this heterogeneous environment continues to grow, it will become more difficult to manage and control. What many companies have realized is that there needs to be a way to take this disparate data and make it homogeneous. Meta data provides this answer ­ it's called XML. XML and its related standards are attempting to solve this problem of heterogeneous data. XML was developed by the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), and it looks to accomplish homogeneity by attaching data tags in HTML (hypertext markup language) that describe the data (meta data) on a Web page. To understand how these data tags function, let's use XML to describe the information about a text book:

<Name>The Complete XML Guide</Name>
<Name>John Smith</Name>
<Publisher>John Wiley & Sons</Publisher>
<PubCity>New York</PubCity>

As we can see, this tag-based approach offers a flexible and extensible mechanism to handle the meta data associated with information content (i.e., each tag name describes the characteristic of the data it specifies). XML's strength comes from the fact that it allows data on the Web to be put in any order because it is the data tag, not the location of the data, that describes the data's meaning.

XML is so important that it is even a bigger meta data "story" than the meta model standards being developed by the Meta Data Coalition and the Object Manage-ment Group. This is mainly because XML is visible to a much larger audience. Efforts are underway to trigger a convergence of XML with the meta model standards of the Meta Data Coalition, the Object Management Group or both. This would provide a "Holy Grail" to corporations as it gives them the opportunity to manage their legacy system of the future ­ the Web ­ before it becomes too large to handle. That's right, the Web is our legacy system of the future. As we've previously mentioned, the Web is the largest database and distributed system in the world. It is also the largest decision support system ever created. The biggest problem with the Web today is finding the information we want. For example, a number of months ago I wanted to see if there were any books written on the topic of meta data. In order to accomplish this, I utilized various Internet search engines to locate any books I could on meta data. My search returned literally thousands of matches. Unfortunately, none of these matches pointed me to an actual book on meta data. I must admit I did give up looking after scrolling through a hundred or so of the Web pages that were returned. In this situation, the XML data tags would have clearly indicated which sites had information about meta data in the title of a book.

XML's goal is to provide the glue (or meta data) that adds meaning to all of the "stuff" on the Web. XML would allow the Internet search engines to look at a Web page and to identify when it locates an actual book or when just the words "meta data book" appear. This functionality would enable corporations to communicate with one another by reading each other's Web sites, through customized (ad hoc) exchange of electronic commerce transactions and through direct XML-based interfaces. Without XML it will be impossible for companies to exchange documents (Web pages) over the Internet without building custom program interfaces or manual intervention.

Keep in mind that XML, like the meta model standards, is still maturing; but both are moving very fast as there is a great deal of market pressure to develop a solution quickly. XML is well on its way to becoming the global meta data standard for the Web.


For more information on related topics visit the following related portals...

David Marco is an internationally recognized expert in the fields of enterprise architecture, data warehousing and business intelligence and is the world's foremost authority on meta data. He is the author of Universal Meta Data Models (Wiley, 2004) and Building and Managing the Meta Data Repository: A Full Life-Cycle Guide (Wiley, 2000). Marco has taught at the University of Chicago and DePaul University, and in 2004 he was selected to the prestigious Crain's Chicago Business "Top 40 Under 40."  He is the founder and president of Enterprise Warehousing Solutions, Inc., a GSA schedule and Chicago-headquartered strategic partner and systems integrator dedicated to providing companies and large government agencies with best-in-class business intelligence solutions using data warehousing and meta data repository technologies. He may be reached at (866) EWS-1100 or via e-mail at DMarco@EWSolutions.com.

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